Founded by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the god Mars Founded by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the god Mars




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WARM-UP:

  • WARM-UP:



Founded by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the god Mars

  • Founded by Romulus and Remus, twin sons of the god Mars

  • Twins abandoned; raised by she-wolf

  • Romulus killed Remus and founded city of Rome



Chosen for:

  • Chosen for:

    • Fertile soil
    • Strategic location
      • Center of Italian peninsula in center of Mediterranean Sea
      • Seven hills on the Tiber River


Three Groups:

  • Three Groups:

    • Latins
      • Found original settlement of Rome between 1000 and 500 B.C.
    • Greeks
      • These prosperous and commercially active cities brought all of Italy, including Rome, into closer contact with Greek civilization
    • Etruscans
      • Native to Northern Italy
      • They had a lot of cultural influence on the Latins. (alphabet, architecture, arch, togas, and trade)


Both the Greeks and the Etruscans had an influence on the development of Roman religion.

  • Both the Greeks and the Etruscans had an influence on the development of Roman religion.

  • polytheists who believed in many gods and spirits.

  • The Romans took the legends and stories of the Greek gods and renamed them for themselves.

  • Values = Gravitas

    • Gravitas
      • emphasized discipline, strength, and loyalty. A person with these values was said to have the important virtue of gravitas, weightiness or seriousness.
      • The Romans honored strength more than beauty, power more than grace, usefulness more that elegance, and steadiness more than quickness of mind.
      • The father is the head of the household


WARM-UP:

  • WARM-UP:



Kings build Rome’s first temples and public centers

  • Kings build Rome’s first temples and public centers



Established a republic

  • Established a republic

    • Gov’t in which citizens elect leaders
    • Citizen = adult males who own land
  • Two groups struggled for power:

    • Patricians
    • Plebeians


Patricians

  • Patricians

    • Wealthy landowning class that holds most of the power
  • Plebeians

    • Artisans, merchants, & farmers
    • Can vote, but can’t rule
    • Birth alone determined every Roman’s social and political status. Marriage between the patrician and plebeian classes were forbidden.


Plebeians were barred by law from holding most important positions in government(commanding armies, serving as high priests, or holding high offices)

  • Plebeians were barred by law from holding most important positions in government(commanding armies, serving as high priests, or holding high offices)

  • Thousands of plebeians refused to fight in the Roman army unless patricians agreed to certain reforms. They gained access to many political offices and obtained favorable laws.



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