The Grammar-Translation Method Introduction

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The Grammar-Translation Method

  • Introduction

Objectives of GTM

  • To be able to read literature written in the target language

  • To be able to translate from one language to another

  • To develop reading and writing skill

Key Features of GTM

  • Native language

  • Vocabulary / grammatical rules

  • Accuracy /translation

  • Language skills

Advantages of GTM

  • An effective way for application of grammar and sentence structure

  • Few demands on teachers

  • Least stressful for students

Disadvantage of GTM

  • Wrong idea of what language is

  • Less learners’ motivation

  • Create frustration for learners

Application: Typical Techniques

  • (1)  Translation of a Literary Passage

  • (2)  Reading Comprehension Questions

  • (3)  Antonyms/Synonyms

  • (4) Cognates

  • (5)  Deductive Application of Rule

  • (6)  Fill-in-the-blanks

  • (7)  Memorization

  • (8)  Use Words in Sentences

  • (9)  Composition


Reading Method

  • outstanding following the Committee of Twelve in 1900 in the U.S.

The Purpose

  • For people who do not travel abroad, reading is a useful skill to learn a foreign language.


  • ˙Similarity

  • Little or no attention is given to pronunciation.

  • ˙Diversity

  • GTM read difficult texts begun early

  • GTM has Single Vocabulary lists

The Characteristic

  • (1)Acquisition of vocabulary> Grammatical skill

  • (2)Control vocabulary difficulty

  • (3)Reading Comprehension > Pronunciation and Conversational Skills

  • (4)Translation reappear

Advantages with using RM

  • ˙Good for people who do not travel abroad

  • ˙Teacher does not need to have good oral skill

Disadvantages with using RM

  • ˙Narrow skill ability

  • ˙Unbalanced learning

Typical Procedure in a RM Course

  • (1)Read a lot

  • (2)Expand vocabulary fast

The Direct Method

  • Introduction

Rationale of DM

  • First language learning process

  • (1) No grammar

  • (2) No mother tongue

  • (3) No translation

  • (4) Postponement of printed word

  • (5) Postponement of written word

Key Features of DM

  • Target language

  • Vocabulary / grammar

  • Teaching point

  • Language skills

Guidelines of DM for teaching oral language

  • Demonstrate

  • Act

  • Ask questions

  • Correct

  • Use sentences

  • Make students speak much

Advantages of DM

  • An effective way in creating learners to be competent in using the target communicatively.

Disadvantage of DM

  • Difficult to implement in public secondary school education

  • Time-wasting

  • Not all teachers were proficient enough in the foreign language

Application: Typical Techniques

  • (1)  Reading Aloud

  • (2)  Question and Answer Exercise

  • (3)  Student Self-Correction

  • (4) Conversation Practice

  • (5)  Fill-in-the-blank Exercise

  • (6)  Dictation

  • (7)  Paragraph Writing

The Audiolingual Method

  • ˙Founded during World War II for military purposes in USA

  • ˙Popular in the 1960s but died out in the 70s

The Purpose

  • Focus on students’ pronunciation, and train their ability of listening by dialogues and drills

Direct Method & ALM

  • ˙Similarity

  • taught language directly without using L1

  • ˙Diversity

  • ALM drilled students without teaching vocabulary

Structural Linguistics & ALM

  • ˙Mastering the building blocks

  • ˙Learning the rules

Behaviorism & ALM - principles

  • ˙Language learning is habit-formation

  • ˙Mistakes should be avoided

  • ˙Spoken language comes before written language

  • ˙Dialogues and drill centered

Behaviorism & ALM - elements

  • ˙Stimulus

  • ˙Response

  • ˙Reinforcement

The Characteristic

  • (1) Imitation

  • (2) repetition

  • (3) Positively reinforced

  • (4) Over learn

  • *Emphasize in the “Form”,

  • not the “Meaning”

Advantages with using ALM

  • ˙Allows Students to communicate quickly

  • ˙Students became good at pattern

Disadvantages with using ALM

  • ˙Turn Students into parrots

  • ˙Boring and mindless

  • ˙Reduce the motivation

Typical Procedure in an ALM Course

  • (1)hear a dialogue

  • (2)repeat the dialogue

  • (3)key words or structures changed

  • (4)practice substitutions in the pattern drills

The Cognitive Approach

  • Introduction & Rationale

Key Features

  • Instruction is often individualized

  • Vocabulary / grammar

  • Language skills

  • Demands on teachers

Application: Cognitive approach to grammar teaching

  • Grammar teaching should be planned and systematic

  • Necessary grammar instruction

  • Extensive exposure to instructed grammar points

  • Production activities

  • Group work and task performance

  • Postlesson activities

Total Physical Response/TPR (James Asher , 1966)

  • founded by James Asher, a professor of psychology at San José State University, California, USA

The Purpose

  • To have basic oral expression ability through using imperative sentences.

The Characteristic

  • (1)retention

  • (2)Direct commands

  • (3)No stress

  • (4)Listen first

  • *Emphasize in the “Meaning”,

  • not the “Form”

Advantages with using TPR

  • ˙Fun.

  • ˙Memorable.

  • ˙Good for kinesthetic learners.

  • ˙No matter the class size.

  • >>>

Advantages with using TPR

  • ˙Work well with mixed-ability classes.

  • ˙No requirement for many preparation or materials.

  • ˙Effective with young learners.

  • ˙Involves both left and right-brained learning

Disadvantages with using TPR

  • ˙Students feel shy

  • ˙Less useful for upper levels

  • ˙overuse TPR

Typical Procedure in a TPR Course

  • (1)input

  • (2)comprehension

  • (3)express

Oral-Situational Approach

  • Developed in Britain and popular between the 1930s and 1960s

Main difference between DM and OSA

  • Oral-Situational Approach has a systematic planed vocabulary and grammar rules, DM hasn’t.

Main difference between ALM &OSA

  • Oral-Situational Approach doesn’t mention about reinforcement, ALM does.


  • Teaching a practical skill of L2 through copy the way children acquire L1


  • ˙Start from spoken language

  • ˙Avoid errors

  • ˙Teacher-centered

  • ˙Focus on Listening and speaking

  • ˙Chosen the vocabulary

  • ˙The first method uses structural syllabus

Advantages with using OSA

  • ˙Bring the reality situation in the classroom

  • ˙Scheduled progress

Disadvantages with using OSA

  • ˙Turn students into parrots

  • ˙Boring and mindless

  • ˙Reduce the motivation

Typical Procedure

  • ˙Teacher gave a topic

  • ˙Demonstrate with teaching aids

  • ˙Key word changed


  • The name is from the words suggestion and pedagogy.

  • Developed in the 1970s by the Bulgarian psychologist Georgi Lozanov

Attention and memory studies

  • (Adapted from: Richards & Rodgers 2001 Approaches & Methods in Language Teaching Cambridge)


  • Desuggest the psychological barriers to learn vocabulary and conversation


  • ˙Present text with music

  • ˙Practiced breathing

  • ˙Comfortable

  • ˙Choose target language name

  • ˙Colorful posters on the wall

  • ˙Liberate instead of teach

Elements to Suggestopedia

  • ˙Authority

  • ˙Infantilization

  • ˙Double-planedness

  • ˙Intonation, Rhythm and concert pseudo-passiveness

Advantages with using Suggestopedia

  • ˙Increase oral proficiency

  • ˙Lower classroom anxiety

Disadvantages with using Suggestopedia

  • ˙Unavailable of music and comfortable chair

  • ˙No advanced comprehension technique

Typical Procedure

  • ˙Deciphering

  • ˙Concert session

  • ˙Elaboration

  • ˙Production

Community Language Learning

  • Developed by Charles Curran and his associates in 1970s


Psychological Requirements for Successful Learning

  • ˙S stands for security

  • ˙A stands for attention and aggression

  • ˙R stands for retention and reflection

  • ˙D represents discrimination


  • The teacher can successfully transfer his or her knowledge and proficiency in the L2 to the students; Specific purposes are not mentioned.


  • ˙Client-Counselor and Learner-Knower relationships

  • ˙Humanistic Techniques

  • ˙Code Alternation

Advantages with using CLL

  • ˙Remove the feeling of distance and insecure

  • ˙Counselor allows the learner to decide the topic

Disadvantages with using CLL

  • ˙Teacher may become too indirective

  • ˙Confidence based on an inductive strategy for learning

Typical Procedure

  • ˙Translation

  • ˙Group Work

  • ˙Recording

  • ˙Transcription

  • ˙Analysis

  • ˙Reflection and observation

Main Steps of Procedure of CLL

  • ˙Investment

  • ˙Reflection

The Comprehension-based Approach (Natural Approach)

  • Introduction

Features of NA

  • Listening comprehension is very important

  • Begin by listening to meaningful speech

  • Speak when ready

  • One step beyond their level of competence

  • Error correction

  • Appropriate input for the learners

  • Adopt freely from various method sources

The NA v.s. The DM

  • The NA emphasize on

  • 1.Exposure / input

  • 2.Optimizing emotional preparedness

  • 3.A prolonged period of hearing

Objectives of NA

  • To be able to function adequately in the target situation.

  • To be able to convey their requests and idea

Teacher and Student Roles

  • Teacher Roles

  • The primary source

  • Create a classroom atmosphere

  • Choose a rich mix of classroom activities

  • Student Roles

  • Participator ; responder

The Communicative Approach

  • Introduction

Features of CA

  • Communicative intent

  • The use of authentic materials

  • Activities are often carried out

Teacher and Student Roles

  • Teacher roles

  • (1) To facilitate communication

  • (2) To be a co-communicator

  • Student roles

  • Communicator

Advantages of the CA

  • (1) Students will be more motivated

  • (2) Students have opportunities to express

  • (3) Student security is enhanced


Disadvantages of the CA

  • No environment of ESL

  • Difficulty in evaluating students’ performance

  • Ignore the training of reading and writing

Typical techniques

  • Authentic materials

  • Scrambled sentences

  • Language games

  • Picture strip story

  • Role play

Task-Based Approach

  • Introduction

Principles of TBA

  • Tasks provide both the input and output processing

  • Task activity and achievement are motivational

  • Learning difficulty can be negotiated and fine-tuned

Teacher and Student Roles

  • Teacher roles

  • (1) Selector and sequencer of tasks

  • (2) Preparing learners for tasks

  • (3) Consciousness-raising

  • Student roles

  • (1)Group participant

  • (2)Monitor

  • (3)Risk-Taker and innovator

Advantages of TBA

  • (1) Students are free of language control

  • (2) Students have more varied exposure to

  • language

  • (3) Enjoyable and motivating


Disadvantages of TBA

  • focus on meaning could come at the expense of focus on form

Typical techniques

  • Lesson plans should be designed to cover 3 stages in the TBA

  • (1)Pre-task stage

  • (2)During-task stage

  • (3)Post-task stage

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